Federal Government Financial Reports

Financial Report of the US Government

Statements of Federal Financial Accounting Concepts and Standards

Combined Statement of Receipts, Outlays, and Balances

Medicare Trustees Report

Social Security Trustees Report

Medicaid Actuarial Report

The President’s Budget Report

Federal Reserve Banks Combined Quarterly Financial Report

Federal Government Financial Reporting Authorities

United States Constitution

United States Congress

United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

United States Senate Committee on Appropriations

United States Senate Committee on Finance

United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

United States House Oversight and Government Reform Committee

United States House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations

United States House of Representatives Committee on the Budget

United States House of Representatives Committee on Financial Services

Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board

United States Department of the Treasury

White House Office of Management and Budget

United States Government Accountability Office

Other Research Resources

Congressional Research Service, "Federal Financial Reporting:  An Overview"

Government Accountability Office, “Federal Financial Accountability”

Government Accountability Office, “More Complete and Reliable Information Needed to Address Federal Management and Fiscal Challenges,” (2013)

Government Accountability Office, “Improvements Needed in Controls over the Preparation of the U.S. Consolidated Financial Statements,” (2013)

Government Accountability Office, “Understanding the Primary Components of the Annual Financial Report of the U.S. Government,” (2009) 

The Debt to the Penny and Who Holds It

Generational Accounting

Cato Institute, “Generational Accounting”

Congressional Budget Office, “Who Pays What and When?  An Assessment of Generational Accounting,” November 2005

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, “ ‘Generational Accounting’ is Complex, Confusing, and Uninformative,” February 2014

Accounting for Social Security

Dawn Nuschler and Gary Sidor, “Social Security:  The Trust Fund,” Congressional Research Service (2014)

Andrew Biggs, “A New Vision for Social Security,” National Affairs (2013)

Fay Cook and Rachel Moskowitz, “What Americans Think About the Future of Social Security,” Scholars Strategy Network (2012)

The New York Times, “Accounting for Social Security,” (2011)

Joint Economic Committee, Republican Staff Commentary, “Social Security Surpluses:  Financial Fact or Accounting Fiction?” (2011)

James K. Galbraith, Randall Wray, and Warren Mosler, “The Case Against Intergenerational Accounting:  The Accounting Campaign Against Social Security and Medicare,” Levy Economics Institute (2009)

Howell Jackson, “Accounting for Social Security Benefits,” Harvard Law School Discussion Paper (2005)

David John, “Misleading the Public:  How the Social Security Trust Fund Really Works,” Heritage Foundation (2004)

Alan Auerbach, Jagadeesh Gokhale, and Laurence Kotlikoff, Social Security and Medicare Policy from the Perspective of Generational Accounting,” National Bureau of Economic Research (1991)

Statement and Account Clause of the United States Constitution

The Founders’ Constitution, “Article I, Section 9 Clause 7”

William Randolph, “Disbursement of Public Monies,” 19 Annals of Congress 1330-31 (1809)

Louis Fisher, “Declaration of Louis Fisher,” in Steven Aftergood v. Central Intelligence Agency (2004)

Kate Smith, “Congress’ Power of the Purse,” Yale Law School, (1988)

Katherine Harris, “Statement and Account Clause,” Yale Law School

Robert F. Turner, “Secret Funding and the Statement and Account Clause,” (1994)

William C. Banks and Peter Raven-hansen, National Security Law and the Power of the Purse, Chapter 10, “The Statement and Account Clause as a Constitutional Limit on Black Budgets,” (1994)

Joseph Marren, “Importance of Statement and Account Clause Cannot Be Overlooked,” Jurist, October (2012) 

Federal Reserve Accounting

Federal Reserve Board of Governors, “Financial Accounting Manual for Federal Reserve Banks”

Louise Roseman and Donald Hammond, Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Comment Letter to Federal Accounting Standards Board proposed Statement titled “Reporting Entity” (2013)